Born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1927, where he graduated from the Institute of Design (IvKNO). In the late 1950s he moved to Milan, starting to work for Pirelli of which he will become art director in 1961. Art consultant for LaRinascente packaging in 1963-64. In 1965 he co-founded Unimark International with Massimo Vignelli, one of the greatest design firms worldwide. In 1975 he was appointed art director of the Touring Club of Italy (TCI). He designed the subway signage of Milan, New York, and São Paolo, and the corporate identities of many major companies and institutions, including Agip, Arnoldo Mondadori, Coop, Regione Lombardia, Total, and the Venice Biennale. He also designed many book series and covers for Feltrinelli, Sansoni, and Vallecchi. Member of ADI since 1961. Secretary-general of AGI in 1969-70 and national president in 1979-85. He was awarded numerous recognitions including three Compasso d’Oro, two Bodoni Prizes, the Ljubljana Biennale Gold Medal, and a honorary degree by the Politecnico of Milan. He taught at the Umanitaria School in Milan and the Venice School of Industrial Design. He died in Milan, Lombardy, 2010.